Sunday, September 09, 2007

Social Networks And Group Formation

Applying social networking theory to a Web product ...

"Humans suffer from information overload; there’s much more information on any given subject than a person is able to access. As a result, people are forced to depend upon each other for knowledge. Know-who information rather than know-what, know-how or know-why information has become most crucial. It involves knowing who has the needed information and being able to reach that person (Johnson et al. 2000).

In this context, understanding the formation, evolution and utilization of online social networks becomes important. A social network is “a set of people (or organizations or other social entities) connected by a set of social relationships, such as friendship, co-working or information exchange.” (Garton et al., 1997) While the Internet contributes to the information overload, it also provides useful tools to effectively manage one’s social networks and through them gain access to the right pieces of information.

This field is of particular interest to researchers working at the intersection of information systems, sociology and mathematics. These researchers study the uses of social networks and the ways in which they are mediated in society and in the workplace through information communication technologies (ICTs) such as (but not limited to) the Internet. This literature review explores how social networks that take advantage of information communication technologies – specifically, web based technologies – begin, evolve and are utilized.

The online social network field is broad, and any literature review can only focus on a selection of articles. The present article highlights recent research in the field and focuses on centrality, linkage strength, identity, trust, activity and benefits. By no means is this review comprehensive, but it should give practitioners some useful concepts to consider as they design social network based web applications.

The Strength of Weak Ties

Social networks were first researched in the late 1940s. With the advent of the Internet, online communities and social networking websites, their significance has only increased. Any review hoping to be meaningful must begin with the normative contributions of the sociologist Mark Granovetter and the mathematician Linton C. Freeman who both wrote influential articles well before the Internet was popularized.

Granovetter (1973) argued that within a social network, weak ties are more powerful than strong ties. He explained that this was because information was far more likely to be “diffused” through weaker ties. He concluded that weak ties are “indispensable to individuals’ opportunities and to their incorporation into communities while strong ties breed local cohesion."    (Continued via Boxes and Arrows)    [Usability Resources]

Depicting Centrality - Usability, User Interface Design

Depicting Centrality

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