Sunday, January 20, 2008

Building a Data-Backed Persona

Using data to build personas ...

"Incorporating the voice of the user into user experience design by using personas in the design process is no longer the latest and greatest new practice. Everyone is doing it these days, and with good reason. Using personas in the design process helps focus the design team’s attention and efforts on the needs and challenges of realistic users, which in turn helps the team develop a more usable finished design. While completely imaginary personas will do, it seems only logical that personas based upon real user data will do better. Web analytics can provide a helpful starting point to generate data-backed personas; this article presents an informal 5-step process for building a “persona of the people.”

In practice, outcomes indicate that designing with any persona is better than with no personas, even if the personas used are entirely fictitious. Better yet, however, are personas that are based on real user data. Reports and case studies that support this approach typically offer examples incorporating data into personas from customer service call centers, user surveys and interviews. It’s nice work if you can get it, but not all design projects have all (or even any!) of these rich and varied user data sources available.

However, more and more sites are now collecting web analytic data using vendor solutions or free options such as Google Analytics. Web analytics provides a rich source of user data, unique among the forms of user data that are used to evaluate websites, in that it represents the users in their native habitat of use. Despite some drawbacks to using web analytics that are inherent to the technology and data collection methods, the information it provides can be very useful for informing design.

Google Analytics is readily accessible and offers great service for the price, so for the sake of example, the methods described here will refer to specific reports in Google Analytics. Any web analytics solution will provide basic reporting similar to Google Analytics, give or take a few reports, so using a different tool will just require you to determine which reports will provide data equivalent to the reports mentioned here.
To illustrate the process, an example persona design scenario is included in the description for each of the five steps:

"Kate is an independent web design contractor who is redesigning the website of a nonprofit professional theater company. She has hardly any budget, plenty of content, and many audiences to consider. The theater’s website fills numerous functions: it advertises the current and upcoming plays for patrons; provides patrons information about ticketing and the live theater experience; announces auditions; specifies playwright manuscript and design portfolio requirements for theater professionals; recruits theater intern staff; serves as the central repository of collected theater history in the form of past play archives and press releases; advertises classes and outreach activities; and attempts to develop a donor base as well. As she gathers requirements, Kate decides to use the theater’s new Google Analytics account as a data source for building personas."

Step One: Collect Data

After Google Analytics has been installed on a site, you must wait for data to accumulate. Sometimes you will have the good fortune to start a project that has already been collecting data for months or years, but when this isn’t the case, try to get as much data as you can before extracting the reports you will use to build personas. Ideally, you want to have enough data for reporting to have statistical power, but not all sites generate this level of traffic. As a rule of thumb, less than two weeks of data is not sufficient for any meaningful analysis. One to three months of the most recent data is much more appropriate.

If it is reasonable, try to set up two profiles to filter on new and returning visitors. While some Google Analytics reports do allow segmentation, profile filtering on new versus returning visitor status gives you the best access to the full array of reports for each visitor segment. If this setup can be arranged early in data collection, then you can later draw on a profile that contains only new visitors to determine the characteristics of your personas who are new visitors, and likewise for returning visitors."    (Continued via Boxes and Arrows)    [Usability Resources]

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